A Bibliography of the muwashshahaat

by Otto Zwartjes, University of Oslo/University of Amsterdam


SUMMARY: After the bibliographies of Carroza (1973), Hitchcock (1977) and Hitchcock–López Morillas (1996) the criteria adopted for determining whether an item be included were gradually changing. Carroza (1973) was a first attempt and Hitchcock (1977) excluded Arabic titles, focusing on the controversial problem of Romance lyric origins in the light of the kharajaat, a bibliography which was updated ten years later by Armistead (1987). The great achievement of Hitchcock–López-Morillas (1996) was the fact that a special section included titles in Arabic and studies of music and popular Arabic poetry were also included. This paper explores recent developments in studies on Andalusi strophic poetry in general and kharja studies in particular, including the musical tradition in North Africa. I wish to give an overview of the most important publications which have appeared after the two previous conferences organized in Exeter and Madrid (Jones & Hitchcock 1991, and Corriente & Sáenz-Badillos 1991) and in the second place I wish to present our recently published bibliography (Heijkoop & Zwartjes 2004).



Armistead, S. 1987. “A brief history of kharja studies”. Hispania, 70: 8-15.

Carroza, D.O.A. 1973. The Mozarabic Harğa: a Critical Bibliography. MA Thesis, Chapel Hill.

Corriente, F. & Á. Sáenz-Badillos. 1991. Poesía estrófica. Actas del primer congreso internacional sobre poesía estrófica árabe y hebrea y sus paralelos romances (Madrid, diciembre de 1989). Madrid.

Hitchcock, R. 1977. The Kharja. A Critical Bibliography. London.

Hitchcock, R. & C. López-Morillas. 1996. The Kharjas. A Critical Bibliography. Supplement I. London.

Jones, A. & R. Hitchcock. 1991. Studies on the Muwaššah  and the Kharja: Proceedings of the Exeter International Colloquium. Oxford.



CV: Otto Zwartjes is professor of Linguistics at the university of Oslo and leader of the OsProMil project on missionary Linguistics and assistant professor at the Department of Romance linguistics of the University of Amsterdam. He wrote his Ph. D. thesis at the university of Nijmegen which was published by Brill in 1997 with the title: Love Songs from al-Andalus: History, Structure and Meaning of the Kharja. Leiden, etc. : Brill. Recently (2004) appeared a bibliography, written in cooperation with Henk Heijkoop: Muwaššah, Zajal, Kharja. Bibliography of Strophic Poetry and Music from al-Andalus and their Influence in East and West. Leiden, etc. : Brill.


Otto Zwartjes

University of Oslo/ University of Amsterdam,

Amsterdam Center of Language and Communication (ACLC)